A good research paper requires effective scientific expression of a subject; that is,construction of intelligent,informative,and understandable sentences that use the right terminology,punctuation and grammar. Ambiguous and metaphysical expressions,and brash coinage of words should be avoided. A fundamental sentence,which is composed of the subject,the object,and the predicate,is often obscure in Japanese writing. Likewise,conjunctions,especially post positional words which function as an auxiliary to a sentence,have a vaguer parallel in papers written in Japanese. The writer should be careful to use commas,quotationn marks and other punctuation correctly,as this creates coherence and clarity. Idioms should be avoided in formal writing,and correct usage of conceptual words should be adhered. Finally,the writer should also take care when typing the finished paper so that words are not misused. Thankfuly,word processors and other computer programs can detect grammatical errors and can correct the content in minimal time for English but not yet for Japenese.
A questionnaire on how people perceive an “artificial anus” was completed by 250 men and 250 women,who were divided into groups according to age. More than 90％ of the people who responded to the questionnaire knew the term “artificial anus”. Half of them acquired their knowledge through the mass media. Less than 10％ of the people had precise medical knowledge of an “artificial anus”,and 60％ of these people thought that rectal cancer resulted in abdominal stoma or an “artificial anus”. The majority of the interviewes of this survey thought that ostomates have to avoid hard physical activities like swimming or riding on a bumpy road. Their image of an “artificial anus” was negative and they associated it with words like “trouble-some” or “tragedy”. Furthermore,there was no statistical correlation between the correct knowledge about “artificial anus” and a positive image. This study concludes that medical staff,such as doctors or nurses,should provide guidance and be informative with the patients concerning stoma surgery and postoperative lifestyle. This is because most patients are somewhat ignorant of stoma even though they know of people using the “artificial anus”.
Thirteen commercially available air mattresses were tested to systematically classify and evaluate their body-pressure distribution values. We measured and evaluated air mattress shape classifications and body-pressure values under constant conditions.
The three shape classifications we used were cylindrical-separation,cylindrical one-piece,and wave-form-one-piece. A digital body-pressure meter was attached over the sacrum in thirteen healthy volunteers. The body-pressure distribution levels for each mattress were then measured. All the air mattresses were found to have a body pressure value less than the control value for al l classifications.
The cylindrical-separation type showed particularly good results in the degree and the shift over time. Analyzing the body pressure experienced by the volunteers over time,we categorized the mattresses into three groups: （1）relatively low body pressure with an extremely low level of fluctuation over time; （2）great fluctuation in body pressure over time;and（3）relatively high body pressure,with little fluctuation over time.
A new skin barrier for urostomyw as developed by blending several kinds of hydrophobic polymers. We did a patch test on healthy men, and conducted a comparative study of its physical properties between conventional skin barriers and this new material. From our findings, the following points emphasize this material's highly suitable properties for urostomy patients:
1. The newly developed skin barrier does not break or swell, so no changes in shape or volume occur after absorbing water.
2. The peel adhesion of the newly developed skin barrier does not increase after repeated applications and peelingｓ.
We reported a case of a 57-year-old man with defecation difficulties following spinal cord injury,in which a colostomy had contributed to a better quality of life（QOL）for the patient. Our review at 1 year after the colostomy demonstrated improvements on defecation,food intake,daily activities and decubitus ulcer. We again reviewed the clinical conditions of the patient for the period 1 to 2 years after the colostomy,and found the following: defecation resumed during the day,and the time to defecate was reduced; the patient could use every device in his self-care,and a cystostomy assisted urination. Consequently,the patient was relieved of his mental distress,and his decubitus ulcer healed. Furthermore,the range of the patient's activities of daily life（ADL）increased. From these results,we could gauge the patient's condition and could recommend suitable stoma care. We conclude that in order to improve the QOL of some patients,a comprehensive understanding of individuals' needs and state of mental health is essential.
A 66-year-old man with advanced rectal cancer accompanied by an advanced stage of cirrhosis of the liver underwent low anterior resection of the rectum. After the operation,the patient underwent a colostomy of considerable size because of lealcage from the anastomosis. There was substantial bleeding due to the abrasive action against the stomal flange. Advanced cirrhosis of the liver was the cause of this coagulation insufficiency. The course of treatment for the peristomal skin damage was ordinal stoma care. To improve the patient's skin damage,we made a circular stomal flange and attached it to the peristomal lesion to project the stoma. The undulation of the flange was flattened with paste,and then the ordinal stomal flange was overlaid. With this care,the patient's skin damage had improved markedly 6 months later. This technique proved very effective in caring forsk in damagei nduced bya s ubsided stoma ofc onsiderable size.