Takeshita carried out a mail-questionnaire survey on the distribution and existing population of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in 1970. In the survey, the questionnaires were sent to more than one-third of all Japanese local governments (1102 cities, towns and villages in total) where wild monkeys were likely to be found and received replies from 85% of them. These results, however, have been stored for more than half-century without public announcement. All information including the location maps, estimated population sizes and degree of crop raiding where Japanese macaques lived in 1970 are presented.
In this paper, I discuss the relationship between social organization and offspring-rearing methods, which are starting to be used as a novel indicator in interspecies societal comparisons. Additionally, I clarify the relationship between the intimacy of the mother–offspring relationship and the development of foraging in the offspring. I suggest that the establishment of a base camp in human evolution is important not only to facilitate effective hunting and gathering but also for immature individuals to reduce the cost of accompanying adults and engage in their own foraging activities.
I also attempt to deconstruct weaning from the offspring’s perspective, which often focuses on the mother’s decision to stop breastfeeding. Specifically, I focus on the development of the offspring’s ability to acquire food independently and the offspring’s behavior away from its mother. I suggest that there is no significant difference between humans and African apes in the timing when the offspring significantly reduces its dependence on breast milk. This paper also depicts “early weaning” as a characteristic of the unique life history of humans, in which the mother conceives a second offspring at the same time as or even before the offspring becomes much less dependent on the mother’s milk.